1. The law is a result of the freedom of human beings.
    1. - The law specifies the limits of freedom, not the limits of a human being.
    2. - A human being’s freedom ends where another human being’s freedom begins.
  2. The law differs from the laws of nature.
    1. - In contrast with natural laws, the law is subject to change.
    2. - The law formulates rules about the confines of freedom.
  3. The law expresses itself through the word.
    1. - Each concept used in the law requires exact definition.
    2. - The law shall be formulated in clear language, not in abstractions.
  4. The structure of the law is language.
    1. - The law may be formulated in any language.
    2. - In freedom all human beings are equal, independently of their language.
  5. The methodology of the law is linked with time (with culture).
    1. - The difference between cultures can lead to different ways of formulating the law.
    2. - The difference between cultures should not lead to a restriction of individual freedom by the law.
  6. The subject of the law is human conduct.
    1. - The law specifies the consequences and limitations of human actions.
    2. - The law does not attach a judgement to human actions per se.
  7. The law describes interactions of the limits of freedom.
    1. - Interactions between persons which have been freely engaged in, but for which the parties concerned cannot or will not take responsibility, are settled by the law.
    2. - The law seeks to bring about the atonement of guilt.
  8. The law provides for the settlement of conflicting interests.
    1. - Conflicts of interests which cannot or will not be bridged by the parties concerned, are settled by the law.
    2. - The law seeks to resolve instead of condemning.
  9. The law reflects the aims of a society.
    1. - In the best sense, the law settles the possibilities for ethical individualism, equality of persons and a fraternalistic economy to arise.
    2. - Handling the law demands knowing about knowledge, thinking about thought.
  10. The law is perfectly clear, without restricting freedom.
    1. - The law gives clarity about what can be considered as unworthy of a human being.
    2. - The law can only be applied to those who have accepted the law as such.
  11. The law describes consequences from a viewpoint of equality.
    1. - The law cannot affect the dignity, responsibility or freedom of the individual.
    2. - The law distinguishes between men and women.
  12. The law offers a solution (healing) for injustice done.
    1. - The solution to injustice which is offered by the law does not consist of punishment.
    2. - If the law fails in individual cases, the solution is determined by the judge.

Jan Pieter de Kok
Aquarel, 1998